Posts Tagged With: Patience

Note by Note

Last week I watched a movie called Note by Note: The Making of Steinway L1037.  It is the story of a piano.  More, it is a story of hope for all of us woodworkers.  I recommend it highly.

A brief synopsis.  This is a film about the making of a piano, and of the people who made it.  The movie begins with the glue-up of the rim of a Steinway concert grand piano, and follows the piano – and the craftsmen and women – through the yearlong build.  If you’ve ever played piano or any other instrument, for that matter, you’ll appreciate this movie even more.

For woodworkers, though, the movie carries a few special and powerful undercurrents.  From the buyer who travels to Alaska to select the spruce for the soundboard to the cabinetmakers who carefully assemble the case and frame to extraordinarily tight tolerances, this is the story about craftspeople who care about their work.  They have an obvious and personal investment in every single piano that Steinway builds.

The pianos that come from this factory are handmade.  Machines help with the grunt work, to be sure, but there is a ton of handwork in these musical instruments.  Keys are adjusted to within fractions of millimeters to be the same height.  Tuning is done over a number of weeks and months to permit stresses on the cast iron plate to gradually equalize.  The rim and frame are set aside after glue-up for a month, allowing the glue-up to cure before any additional work is done.  It is an amazing process to watch.

How does all of this translate to hope for us?   Simply this:  all of the work on these magnificent creations is done by people just like you or me.  One fellow used to play in the Steinway yard as a child, running around the stacks of stickered maple and spruce.  Now he works there.  The managers and supervisors at this company make a point to stress that the skills that are needed to work there are handed down from the old-timers to the new-comers.  Generation after generation, the skills are passed along.  Most of the important work is done the same way today as it was one hundred years ago.  Here’s the point:  very few of the folks who put their hearts into these pianos were cabinetmakers, sound technician, or piano tuners – let alone piano players – when they walked through the doors of the plant for their first shift.   The skills they have today, they learned.  Time, patience, and hard work.  They started out as novices, and turned into craftsmen building the finest pianos in the world.

If they can do it, we can, too.

See the movie.   It’s on DVD, and it isn’t new (2007) so there shouldn’t be a long wait for it.  Let me know what you think.


Jeff Zens owns and operates Custom Built Furniture in Salem, Oregon.  He is a frequent woodworking instructor at the Northwest Woodworking Studio in Portland, Oregon.

Categories: Woodworking | Tags: , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Sharpening Class, Part III – Getting your Shine On

In the previous two posts (here and here) we’ve been working on flattening the back face of a cutting tool. If you have created a consistent scratch pattern across the tool’s back, stretching from side to side and from the bevel up about an inch or so, your tool is now as flat as your shop’s reference surface. Now it’s time to polish.

Why Spend the Time?

The best arguments I can advance to explain why polishing the tool is important come from two sources. The first one is the definition of the sharp edge: the intersection of two flat polishedplanes. Logically this makes sense. Logically, the quality of a cutting edge is a product of the quality of the bevel and the quality of the back.

Visual proof of this statement can be found in micrographs of cutting edges. Fine Woodworking readers will recall an article written by Aime Ontario Fraser in the July/August 2002 issue that graphically illustrates this point. You can take my word for it, or go back and look at those photos. The point of Ms. Fraser’s article was to compare honing systems. My point is slightly different: when you look closely at the photos, understand that all the scratches you see in the tool steel transfer directly to your workpiece. So the finer the scratch pattern on the steel, the more refined a surface the steel will leave behind.

In practice, the final proof of this concept comes from comparing the surfaces obtained from well-polished steel and from a fresh tool, right out of the box. It isn’t a fair fight.


So how to get that shimmer, that silky-smooth surface right from the tool? It’s all in the polish. And here, let me interject that this concept of polishing the back of the tool is called honing when you do it to the bevel. Bevel or back, the end result should be the same – flat, scratch free steel.

If you’re using silicon carbide paper to flatten, the steps are fairly straightforward. Moving to progressively finer grits, erase the scratches left from the previous flattening operation. To make this a lot easier, change the angle at which the tool is moved across the surface of the abrasive. For example, at 220 grit, hold the tool so the flattening scratches are parallel to the tool’s cutting edge, and are at a right angle to the tool’s sides. Continue doing this until you have flattened the tool as described in the previous post. Now change abrasive, moving to 320 grit. This time, move the tool so the scratches are at a 45-degree angle to the sides. Flip the tool over after a few strokes, and you will see two very clear patterns of scratches – the 220 grit scratches with the 320 grit pattern overlaid at a 45-degree angle. Now go back to work and erase all of the 220 grit scratches. If you have really flattened the back of the tool, you’ll notice that the time you spend with the 320 paper is considerably less than the amount of time it took to flatten with 220. Once you’re done at 320, move to 400, and so on. Don’t cheat, and don’t skip grits. Get all of the coarser grit scratches polished out each time you change grits. Remember that you will only do this once for the back of each cutting tool and that the results are certainly worthwhile.

Again assuming that you’re using paper for the backs of your tools, progress through the grits up to 2000 grit if you can find it. At 2000 grit, the back of your tool will be a mirror, and if you’ve stayed true to your reference surface, it will be just as flat. This is a good time to interject a reminder: we’re after two flat, polished surfaces. Flat but not polished is better than polished but not flat. There are a lot of ways you can polish a tool without flattening it. A buffing wheel with tripoli and rouge polishing compounds is a good example; so is the leather stropping wheel on a Tormek. Either of these will give you a mirror polish, but neither will improve the tool’s performance alone.  I still use a Tormek occasionally, but the stropping wheel is only used to buff carving tools.

If you’re using stones to obtain the polish, work through the grits you own. My shop setup consists of 800, 1200, 4000 and 8000 grit man-made Japanese water stones. Because these stones are fairly soft, they need to be flattened, which I described in Part II or this series.  If you’re doing a lot of work with the stones during a flattening session, you may need to flatten the stones more than once. To maximize the time between flattening, use the entire surface of both faces of the stone. The idea of changing the angle at which you move the steel across the stone is the same. Because the jump between grits is larger, you will spend more time on each stone relative to the time you spend on each paper grit. So the down-side of flattening with water stones is flattening the stones themselves – and the additional time you’ll spend on each. The up-side is that one good set of water stones will last you a lifetime. Silicon carbide is marginally faster, but needs constant replacement.

To summarize: flatten until you can see yourself in the back of the tool. No errant scratches. Stay true to the flat reference surface you use; don’t rock the tool, keep the steel absolutely flat on the abrasive.

If you’ve followed these steps, your tool has one flat, polished surface. You have one more to go – but you’re way more than half-way to a keen edge.

Questions?  Let me know.

Next: Grinding the Bevel, and the Straight Scoop on Angles


Jeff Zens owns and operates Custom Built Furniture in Salem, Oregon. He is a frequent woodworking instructor and writer.

Categories: Woodworking | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Learning to Sharpen…Learning Patience

I recently taught another sharpening class.  As it so often happens, I learn a lot when I teach.  This lesson was about patience.

The class was made up of ten students of varying degrees of skill and experience.  One of them wanted to chat about a  program in furniture-making which I completed this last year.  Another was a carpenter who used his chisels a lot, and not just on wood, or so it seemed.  There was a couple, a wife who wanted to immediately learn everything there was to know, and who brought along her husband to experience it with her.

There was a lot of variety in this group.  There was also a common thread: everyone wanted to be done sharpening, and done now.

Admittedly, sharpening isn’t “fun”, and it isn’t “woodworking” as most of this group defined it.  And the hardest lesson of all to teach was that a sharp edge does not just happen.  Even the best tool makers tell customers that their edges will need some attention before they are ready to perform adequately.  Most of the tools that came to class were not from the finest tool makers.  Some were brand new, some were very old. Some were shiny, many were rusty.  And, of course, the older and rustier, the more work was needed.

Flattening took a long time.  Over and over:  “How does this look?”  “Keep at it. Look for consistent scratches all the way across the back.”  Five minutes later:  “How about this?”  and on and on.  When we took our lunch break, most of the tools were approaching flat backs but none was there yet.  And when we got back together after lunch, hubby did not return.  “This takes way too long,” I heard from wife.

Looking back at that class, I realized that sharpening is a lot like learning to work with wood.  If you want good results, somewhere along the way you have to pay your dues.  For most of us that means going to classes, and then going back to the shop and working.  Practicing.  Some are lucky to get it down the first time.  Most of us need to work at it.

Stubbornness is probably an asset.  To do good work, to pay attention to the details of joinery that will last requires a certain sticktoitiveness.  Sometimes it requires a willingness to stat over, or to sacrifice a workpiece that should not be saved.  Always it requires the ability and willingness to fix mistakes, and to learn from those mistakes in order to avoid them the next time.  No shortcuts, no “good enough.”

Sharpening is a process, just like woodworking.  It is a time to reestablish that relationship with our tools, and to refine our touch to the point where we know without thinking that only the tip and heel of the bevel are in contact with the stone.  And finally,  when the polish is just right, uniform across the edge, when you just can’t resist slicing half a hair off the back of your hand, then you know you’re done, and you can get back to it.

But not before.


Jeff Zens owns and operates Custom Built Furniture in Salem, Oregon.  He is a frequent woodworking instructor and writer..

Categories: Sharpening, Woodworking | Tags: , | 1 Comment

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